PassPoints: Design and Longitudinal Evaluation of a Graphical Password System
Authors: Susan Wiedenbeck, Jim Waters, Jean-Camille Birget, Alex Brodskiy, Nasir Memon

Date: July 2005
Publication: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Volume 63, Issues 1-2
Page(s): 102 - 127
Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Abstract or Summary:
Computer security depends largely on passwords to authenticate human users. However, users have difficulty remembering passwords over time if they choose a secure password, i.e. a password that is long and random. Therefore, they tend to choose short and insecure passwords. Graphical passwords, which consist of clicking on images rather than typing alphanumeric strings, may help to overcome the problem of creating secure and memorable passwords. In this paper we describe PassPoints, a new and more secure graphical password system. We report an empirical study comparing the use of PassPoints to alphanumeric passwords. Participants created and practiced either an alphanumeric or graphical password. The participants subsequently carried out three longitudinal trials to input their password over the course of 6 weeks. The results show that the graphical password users created a valid password with fewer difficulties than the alphanumeric users. However, the graphical users took longer and made more invalid password inputs than the alphanumeric users while practicing their passwords. In the longitudinal trials the two groups performed similarly on memory of their password, but the graphical group took more time to input a password.

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